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The Orontid (Ervanduni) dynasty
The first Armenian dynasty was that of the Ervanduni, from the name Ervand (Eruand), known in Greek historiography in the form Orontes or Aroandes. But it was a short-lived sovereignty, for the Ervanduni were soon subjugated to the rule of Darius I, who shared out their territory between the two satrapies, the XIII and the XVIII, of his administrative system. Thus, among the twenty-three populations dominated by Darius were the Armenians, alongside the Medes and the Susians, in Adapadana of Persepolis.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:23:56

The Artaxiads (Artashesiank)
At the roots of this evolution was the foundation, around 190 b.c., of the Artaxiad dynasty by Artaxias (Artashes) I (c. 190-159) with the proclamation of independence from the Seleucids, who had constituted the ascendent power in Armenia immediately after the collapse of Alexander"s empire. Artashes had the approval and acknowledgement of the Romans for, having defeated Antiochus at Magnesia in 190, they were interested in having the Armenian sovereign as an ally.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:33:32

The dynasty of the Arsacids (Arshakuni)
In the decades that followed, Armenia became one of the cherished targets of the hegemony of Romans and Parthians alike, who found support from the pro-Romans and pro-Parthians within the local political setup. A new political situation came about with the campaign of Corbulo, which ended with the treaty of Rhandeia in 63 b.c. In future, Armenia was to have its own king who would be appointed by the Parthians and at the same time be a protege and ally of the Romans. Thus began the dynasty of the Arsacids in Armenia.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:36:29

The interregnum: 428-861
The joint action of religious and cultural factors in the preservation of the Armenian ethnos was to be confirmed, about half way through the fifth century, by an event that was so important that it was to remain a turning point in the political and religious history of Armenia. It was the so-called war of the Vardanank", in which one sees crystallized in its heroes and renegades, both the epic virtues and the defects that in many ways characterized the national life of the Armenians.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:38:38

The Armenia of the Bagratids (Bagratuni) and Artzruni
Along with its break-up in the ninth century, the compact Arab empire also saw a weakening of its power in Armenia. Meanwhile, a very important change had taken place in the ranks of the Armenian aristocracy. The house of Mamikonian, which had played a leading role in the political life of Armenia, actually governing as sovereigns without titles during certain periods, disappeared from the scene towards the end of the eighth century. The Arabs used harsh reprisals to crush the insurrection led by Mamikonian in 774, and the whole family was wiped out.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:46:53

The principality and Kingdom of Cilicia (1080-1375)
With the fall of the Bagratids and the occupation of historical Armenia, everything now seemed lost. But it was precisely at this moment of maximum dispersion that we see the re-emergence of a strength that led to the formation of a new Armenian state, through some miracle of the tenacious will to survive. The little kingdom took shape on a territory not far from historical Armenia, to the southwest, in Cilicia, which had housed Armenian colonies since the very early days. There were many of these colonies and they were consistent, a consequence of the mass migrations that took place after the kingdoms of the motherland had collapsed.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:48:47

The political-cultural situation after the fall of the kingdom of Cilicia
The period from the collapse of the kingdom of Cilicia to the end of the seventeenth century was, overall, a period of impoverishment and decadence in Armenian culture. For two whole centuries, both Greater Armenia and Cilicia (also called Little Armenia, so as to avoid confusion with Armenia Minor) were the theatre of invasions, wars, and harsh struggles for power. Around the end of the fourteenth century, Tamburlaine imposed his might on eastern and central Anatolia and advanced as far as the surroundings of Ankara. Here, he soundly defeated the troops of Sultan Yildirim Beyazit in 1402, but his empire soon broke up nevertheless.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:51:52

Isolated nuclei of independence and the beginnings of the liberation movement
The collapse of the kingdoms of Greater Armenia and Cilicia did not signify the absolute end of autonomy. Various princely houses, holding fast to their strongholds deep in valley or high on inaccessible mountains, managed to maintain their own independence, some for centuries.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:54:00

The Renaissance
The seventeenth century — and above all from 1630 onwards, when a period of relative peace and quiet was beginning in Arrrienia after the campaign of Shah Abbas — offers a broad panorama of ongoing, consistent efforts to accomplish a cultural and religious revival made principally by the enlightened churchmen who succeeded one other on the throne of the catholicos in Edjmiatzin and by certain vardapet. Thanks to these efforts, high-level schools were established at New Julfa—we have already discussed its cultural vitality — at Edjmiatzin and at Baghesh (present-day Bitlis).
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:55:42

The Reawakening (c. 1840-1880)
While the Renaissance, veratznud, fitted into the traditional structures of cultural production and propagated through them, the term Reawakening, zart"onk", a common word in Armenian storiography, denotes the period during which new structures, new means of propagation, and also new partners in cultural production were created. In other words, this was the period when the victories of the Renaissance left their elitist environments wherein the learned culture of the past had always been guarded, and became the common property of the whole people, in both the productive and the receptive sense.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:57:45

The Armenian question
The Reawakening was also the period during which, after a certain stasis early in the century, the Armenian question re-emerged and suddenly became more bitter, under the impulse of many different factors. Among these were for example, the precarious and sometimes desperate situation of the masses, the peasant classes above all, in the internal eastern provinces; the new national conscience of the young intelligentsia that formed after the examples set by the Italian Risorgimento and the insurrectionary movements in the Hapsburg and Russian Empires; the gaining of freedom by the Balkan peoples, formerly subjects of the Ottoman Empire; and the competition between the great powers, which was accompanied by empty and sometimes deceitful promises, to exploit the situation of the Armenians for their own end.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 07:59:24

Armenian Genocide (1914-1922)
It is generally accepted that the Armenian Genocide started on April 24, 1915. The Armenians commemorate this date because on April 24, 1915 more than 200 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders were arrested and then murdered in Constantinople. However, the Turkish plan of uprooting the Armenians from their ancestral homeland was masterminded far beforehand. The outbreak of the WWI in 1914 gave the Young Turks the perfect opportunity to solve the Armenian Question.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 08:06:32

The First Republic of Armenia
The triumph of Bolsheviks in 1917 put an end to the Russian Empire. In winter 1918, the Armenian, Georgian and Moslem leaders of Transcaucasia united to convene the Transcaucasian Federation, which proclaimed the secession of Transcaucasia from Russia.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 08:12:10

The Armenian Republic under the Former Soviet Union
The Soviet Republic of Armenia included an area of about 11,500 square miles and had a population of over 3,300,000- There were more than 300,000 Armenian casualties in the Second World War. Although it was the smallest of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union, both in terms of population density and of surface area, Armenia is of great importance in industrial production and, above all, in certain branches of the sciences.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 08:15:02

Diaspora
While the process that led to the formation of the Armenian Republic was in progress, the present great diaspora was already underway.
Date Added: Wednesday August 02, 2006 08:17:28


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